Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia: Trends of Hospitalizations, Biodemographic Characteristics, and Outcomes With Watermelon Stomach

Asim Kichloo, Dhanshree Solanki, Jagmeet Singh, Dushyant Singh Dahiya, Darshan Lal, Khwaja Fahad Haq, Michael Aljadah, Darshan Gandhi, Shantanu Solanki, Hafiz Muzaffar Akbar Khan


Background: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is a rare but significant cause of acute or chronic gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this study was to determine the biodemographic characteristics, adverse outcomes, and the impact of GAVE hospitalizations on the US healthcare system.

Methods: This retrospective database cross-sectional study used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2001 to 2011 to identify all adult hospitalizations with a primary discharge diagnosis of GAVE, with and without hemorrhage, using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Individuals less than 17 years of age were excluded from the study. The outcomes included biodemographic characteristics, comorbidity measures, and inpatient mortality and the burden of the disease on the US healthcare system in terms of healthcare cost and utilization.

Results: We noted an increase in the total hospitalizations for GAVE from 25,423 in 2001 to 44,787 in 2011. Furthermore, GAVE hospitalizations with hemorrhage rose from 19,168 in 2001 to 27,679 in 2011 while GAVE hospitalization without hemorrhage increased from 6,255 in 2001 to 17,108 in 2011. We also noted a female predominance, the proportional trend of which did not show significant difference from 2001 to 2011. For GAVE hospitalizations, the inpatient mortality decreased from 2.20% in 2001 to 1.73% in 2011. However, the cost of hospitalization increased from $11,590 in 2001 to $12,930 in 2011. After adjusting for possible confounders, we observed that the presence of hemorrhage in GAVE hospitalizations was associated with an increased risk of mortality (odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 - 1.46; P = 0.001).

Conclusions: For the study period, the total number of GAVE hospitalizations increased with an increase noted in the proportion of GAVE hospitalizations without bleeding, reflecting an improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Although inpatient mortality for GAVE slightly decreased, we noted a significant increase in the cost of care likely secondary to increased use of advanced and expensive interventions.

Gastroenterol Res. 2021;14(2):104-111


Gastric antral vascular ectasia; Hemorrhage; Outcome; Mortality; Predictors of mortality; Nationwide inpatient sample; Comorbidities; Cost of care

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