Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Current Aspects of a Recently Recognized Disease

Alfredo J Lucendo, Sonia Gonzalez-Castillo, Danila Guagnozzi, Jose L Yague-Compadre, Angel Arias

Abstract


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic clinicopathological entity characterized by large numbers of intraepithelial eosinophils infiltrating the esophageal mucosa. The inflammation leads to alterations in the caliber and the motility of the organ, which determines esophageal symptoms, especially dysphagia and frequent food impaction. Firstly described in 1978, EoE represents today an increasingly recognized disease, with cases coming from all developed countries and rising epidemiology. The origin of EoE has been related to allergy to food components or inhalants, and a number of studies support a Th2-type reaction in the origin of the disease. Thus, several treatment strategies based on controlling the exposition to triggering allergens or therapies using anti-allergic drugs have demonstrated efficacy in EoE. Since EoE frequently presents with esophageal stenosis, endoscopic dilation has been also used in treating these patients, but a high risk of complications has been documented. However, single treatment strategies have not been compared to a placebo group in most of studies, and we do not know the long-term consequences of eosinophilic inflammation, esophageal fibrous remodeling or its possible modifications using different therapies. Furthermore, we lack of a common accepted therapeutic end-point to assess the efficacy of the treatment: from mere resolution of symptoms to full control of esophageal inflammation. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the epidemiology, origin and pathogenesis of the disease, and discuses several practical questions, especially those related to how the affected patients should be treated.




Gastroenterol Res. 2010;3(2):52-64
doi: https://doi.org/10.4021/gr2010.04.201w

Keywords


Eosinophilic esophagitis; Fluticasone; Endoscopic dilation; Dietary treatment

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