The Role of Clinical Characteristics in Stratifying Sedation Risk: A Cohort Study

Elliott Rebello, Dionne Rebello, Sehrish Jamot, Fabian Vargas, Jason Machan, Harlan Rich


Background: Determination of sedation type during gastrointestinal procedures is generally based on risk assessment via the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, but the reliance of anesthesia risk on clinical factors remains largely uninvestigated. We aim to determine the association between various clinical factors and choice of sedation type during gastrointestinal procedures.

Methods: This single-center, retrospective cohort study used electronic medical records to identify patients receiving colonoscopy or endoscopy at Rhode Island Hospital. The electronic medical record was queried for history of alcohol abuse, opioid abuse, polysubstance abuse, prescriptions for psychotropic or opioid medications and ASA classification. Logistic regression was used to measure how patient characteristics correlated with sedation type.

Results: Totally, 2,033 patients were included in the study; 1,080 patients received moderate sedation and 853 received monitored anesthesia care (MAC). Three hundred fifty-four (60.2%) MAC patients had a history of alcohol abuse compared to 234 (39.8%) moderate sedation patients (P < 0.2334); 178 (62.9%) MAC and 105 (37.1%) moderate sedation patients had a history of opioid abuse (P < 0.001); 203 (73.6%) MAC and 73 (26.4%) moderate sedation patients had a history of polysubstance abuse (P < 0.001); and 815 (75.1%) MAC patients had psychiatric comorbidities versus 270 (24.9%) in the moderate sedation group (P < 0.001). In the MAC cohort, alcohol, opioid, polysubstance abuse and psychiatric history were associated with previous failure of moderate sedation (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: For a subset of patients, clinical factors including alcohol, opioid, polysubstance abuse and psychiatric history, in addition to ASA classification, play an important role in sedation management.

Gastroenterol Res. 2021;14(4):214-219


Sedation type; Gastrointestinal procedures; ASA classification; Clinical factors; Sedation management

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