Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis in Acute Pancreatitis: Does Anticoagulation Affect Outcome?

Parmeshwar Ramesh Junare, Suhas Udgirkar, Sujit Nair, Prasanta Debnath, Shubham Jain, Ammar Modi, Pravin Rathi, Siddhesh Rane, Qais Contractor


Background: Splanchnic venous system thrombosis is a well recognized local vascular complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). It may involve thrombosis of splenic vein (SplV), portal vein (PV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV), either separately or in combinations, and often detected incidentally, indeed some cases present with upper gastrointestinal bleed, bowel ischemia and hepatic decompensation. Incidence is variable depending on study subjects and diagnostic modalities. Pathogenesis is multifactorial centered on local and systemic inflammation. Management involves treatment of underlying AP and its complications. Universal use of anticoagulation may lead to increased risk of bleeding due to frequent need of interventions (radiologic/endoscopic/surgical). Literature on anticoagulation in setting of AP is sparse and at present there is no consensus guideline on it. Current article details our experience on splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT) in AP in a well defined cohort of patients at a tertiary care center.

Methods: Hospitalized patients with AP from January 2018 to December 2018 were included in the study. Detailed information on demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic features, and indication of anticoagulation use were collected prospectively during the index admission. Outcome variables were analyzed at the end of 6 months.

Results: Twenty four out of 105 (22.85%) patients with AP develop SVT. Etiology of AP was alcohol use in 21/24 (87.5%) subjects. Most common vessel involved was isolated SplV in 11/24 (45.8%) patients followed by SplV along with PV and SMV 9/24 (37.50%, P < 0.001). Bowel ischemia 4/12 (33.3%), hepatic decompensation 3/12 (25%), triple vessel involvement 4/12 (33.3%) and pulmonary embolism 1/12 (8.3%) were reasons for anticoagulation. There was no statistical difference with respect to development of varices, collateral formation, recanalization, bleeding and mortality with use of anticoagulation (P > 0.05 with respect to all above variables).

Conclusions: SVT is commonly seen in alcohol-induced AP. Anticoagulation does not affect outcomes of SVT. Subset of patients may benefit with anticoagulation.

Gastroenterol Res. 2020;13(1):25-31
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1223


Acute pancreatitis; Splanchnic venous thrombosis; Anticoagulation; Bleeding; Recanalization

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