Gastroenterology Research, ISSN 1918-2805 print, 1918-2813 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, Gastroenterol Res and Elmer Press Inc
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Original Article

Volume 3, Number 3, June 2010, pages 106-111

Effects of Gelatinization of Enteral Nutrients on Human Gastric Emptying


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Gastric emptying. Liquid and gelatinized meals displayed differences in gastric emptying (p < 0.05). Higher viscosity was associated with slower gastric emptying. Results are expressed as mean ± SD.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Absorption. No differences in absorption were seen between liquid and gelatinized meals. Results are expressed as mean ± SD.
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormone. No differences in blood levels of glucose, insulin or gastrin were seen between liquid and gelatinized meals.


Table 1. Composition of Test Meals
IngredientLiquid meal /225 kcalGelatinized meal I /225 kcalGelatinized meal II /225 kcal
Enteral nutrients were prepared using liquid meal (1 kcal/ml; Racol, Otsuka pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) and Easygel gelatinizing agent, consisting of pectin and calcium lactate (total calorific value: 25 kcal; Otsuka pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan). The total calorific value of each test meal was set at 225 kcal. Liquid meal 225 ml, gelatinized meal 1:200 ml of liquid meal and 25 kcal of gelatinizing agent (viscosity: 16,000 ± 800 cp) and gelatinized meal 2:175 ml of liquid meal and 50 kcal of gelatinizing agent (viscosity: 128,000 ± 4300 cp).
Protein (g)9.8559.068.265
Fat (g)5.01754.463.9025
Glucide (g)35.14536.0436.935
V.A (IU)465.75414362.25
V.D (IU)30.627.223.8
V.B1 (mg)0.8550.760.665
V.B2 (mg)0.551250.490.42875
V.B6 (mg)0.843750.750.65625
niocin (mg)5.62554.375
Pantothenic acid (mg)2.15551.9161.6765
Falia acid (µg)84.3757565.625
V.B12 (µg)0.720.640.56
V.C (mg)63.22556.249.175
V.K (µg)140.625125109.375
V.E (mg)1.46251.31.1375
Biotin (µg)8.6857.726.755
Na (mg)166.05379.6593.15
Cl (mg)263.25234204.75
K (mg)310.5276241.5
Mg (mg)43.42538.633.775
Ca (mg)99134169
P (mg)99159219
Fe (mg)1.406251.251.09375
Mn (µg)299.25266232.75
Cu (µg)281.25250218.75
Zu (mg)1.441.281.12
Se (µg)5.62554.375
Dietary fiber (g)02.65.2
Water (g)191.25215.7240.15